Penicillium | Aspergillus Types

Characteristics: Type I and Type III allergen. One species considered pathogenic. Produces toxins.

Description: It is often found in soil, decaying plant debris, compost piles, and rotting fruit with a blue, green, or white coloration. It is disseminated as a dry spore by wind and insects. Indoor growth is common and is often found in house dust. Generally it is found in water damaged buildings on wallpaper, wallpaper glue, decaying fabrics, moist chipboards, and behind the paint. It can also commonly be found in the blue rot of apples, dried foods, cheeses, fresh herbs, spices, dry cereals, nuts, onions, and oranges. As an allergen, it has been known to cause both Type I allergy symptoms including hay fever and asthma as well as Type III allergy symptoms including hypersensitivity pneumonitis called cheese washer’s lung, woodman’s lung, and moldy wall hypersensitvity. As a pathogen, one species of the Penicillium species called P. marneffei, has been known to cause infection, but has not yet been found in the United States. As a toxigenic agent, it produces penicillic acid, peptide mephrotoxin, viomellein, xanthomegin, xanthocillin X, mycophenolic acid, roquefortine C&D, citrinin, penicillin, cyclopiazonic acid, isofumigaclavine A, penitrem A, decumbin, patulin citreoviridin, griseofulvin, verruculogen, ochratoxin, chrysogine, and meleagrin.

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