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Acremonium

For indoor growth this fungus requires very wet conditions. Most species of Acremonium do not grow at 37°C.



Alternaria

As a pathogen it has been known to cause nasal lesions, subcutaneous lesions, and nail infections. The majority of infections occur in people with underlying disease



Amerospores

Amerospores represents a morphological category of spores that are produced by many unrelated fungi. Instead amerospores are identified by increasing magnificat



Amphobotrys

Characteristics: No information is available regarding
health effects, or toxicity. Allergenicity has not been studied.

Description: Amphobotrys species comprise a very small
proportion of the fungal biota. This genus is most closely related to Botrytis.
No information is available regarding health effects,

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Annellophora/Taeniolella rudis

Characteristics: No information is available regarding
health effects, or toxicity. Allergenicity has not been studied.

Description: Annellophora species are common, but
comprise a small proportion of the fungal biota. This genus is related to
Taeniolella. In particular, Taeniolella rudis has very similar morphology.

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Anthrobotrys

Anthrobotrys is found primarily in the soil and is one of those fungi capable of capturing nematodes.



Athrospore formers

Arthrospores are a very primitive spore type, formed by the breaking up or disarticulation of fungal mycelia. Many yeast-like fungi such as the genera Geotricum



Arthrinium

It is often found in soil or decomposing plant material with a white coloration and has a texture of wooly tufts or long soft hairs.



Arthrobotrys

Arthrobotrys is found primarily in the soil and is one of those fungi capable of capturing nematodes.



Ascospores

Allergenic, Pathogenic, and Toxigenic dependant on genus and species. For indoor growth this fungus requires damp conditions.



Ascotricha

No information is available regarding health effects, or toxicity. Allergenicity has not been studied.



Aspergillus

For indoor growth this fungus requires varying conditions dependant on the species. Most species of Aspergillus grow at 37°C (body temperature).



Aspergillus flavus

It is an occasional agent of pulmonary or disseminated infection in the immunocompromised patient. Cases of sinusitis and onychomycosis have also been reported.



Aspergillus fumigatus

The most frequently isolated agent of aspergillosis in humans. It may cause pulmonary, nasal, ocular, cerebral, bone, cardiovascular, and organ infections, part



Aspergillus niger

For indoor growth this fungus is often seen in indoor environments, but not generally associated with contaminated building materials. It is found in floor, car



Aspergillus versicolor

For indoor growth this fungus is often found in buildings with humidity and ventilation problems. As a toxigenic agent, it produces sterigmatocystin.



Aspergillus sydowii

It is considered a pathogen in immune system compromised humans. It is not considered toxigenic. It is often found on food.



Aureobasidium

For indoor growth this fungus requires moist conditions, commonly found in bathrooms or kitchens, on shower curtains, tile grout window sills, textiles,



Bactrodesmium

No information is available regarding health effects, or toxicity. Allergenicity has not been studied.



Basidiospores

For indoor growth this fungus requires wet conditions. Occasionally, a benign, non-wood rotting mushroom will fruit inside a building, g



Beauveria

Allergen Type I, also considered a rare pathogen, and it is unknown whether it is a potential toxin.



Beltrania

Beltrania species comprise a very small proportion of the fungal biota. No information is available regarding health effects, or toxicity.



Bipolaris/Drechslera Group

For indoor growth this fungus can grow on various surfaces. As an allergen, it has been known to cause Type I symptoms of hay fever and asthma. As a pathogen,



Bispora

olonies are punctiform or effuse, usually fuscous or black. Very common on wood especially felled wood of many deciduous trees including beech, elm, hazel, hornbeam, and oak.



Blastobotrys

Blastobotrys species comprise a very small proportion of the fungal biota. No information is available regarding health effects, or toxicity.



Botryomyces

Botryomyces species comprise a very small proportion of the fungal biota. This genus is not treated by many reference books on fungi.



Calcarisporium

Calcarisporium species comprise a small proportion of the fungal biota and may be more common in northern forested or southeastern areas of the United States.



Cephaloascus

Cephaloascus species comprise a very small proportion of the fungal biota. No information is available regarding health effects, o



Ceratoystis | Ophiostoma Group

No information is available regarding health effects, or toxicity. Allergenicity has not been studied. Persons most at risk are lumberyard workers, carpenters



Cercospora

It is often found in plants as a parasite. It is disseminated as a dry spore by the wind.



Chaetomium

Possible allergen Type I. Uncommon pathogen. Is a toxigenic agent. It is often found in soil, seeds, cellulose substrates, dung, woody, and straw materials.



Choanephora

Choanephora species comprise a very small proportion of the fungal biota and may be more common in the southeastern areas of the United States.



Chromelosporium

Chromelosporium species are common in soil but are not well known. This genus is most closely related to Amphobotrys, and Botrytis. It is common in greenhouses



Chrysonilia

No information is available regarding health effects, or toxicity. Allergenicity has not been studied. A single case of human infection was reported in 1961.



Chrysosporium

Chrysosporium species are common and comprise a heterogeneous group whose taxonomy has been widely debated.



Circinella

No information is available regarding health effects, or toxicity. Allergenicity has not been studied.



Cladosporium

Common allergen Type I and III. Generally non-pathogenic, except for one species (Cladosporium Carrionii). Considered to have low toxicity.



Coelomycete/Phoma

Allergen Type I. Pathogenic dependent on genus and species, but the vast majorities do not cause disease. Not considered a toxigenic agent.



Cunninghamella

Cunninghamella bertholletiae is known as an occasional opportunistic pathogen, mostly after trauma with thorns or splinters. No information for health effects



Curvularia

It is often found in plant debris, soil, facultative plant pathogens or tropical or subtropical plants with a gray or brown coloration.



Dactylaria

Dactylaria species comprise a very small proportion of the fungal biota. This genus is most closely related to Ochroconis and Scolecobasidium.



Dicyma

This genus is the asexual phase of Ascotricha which is closely related to Chaetomium. No information is available regarding health effects, or toxicity.



Doratomyces

Doratomyces species comprise a small proportion of the fungal biota. The sporulating structures of Doratomyces form synnema (coremia), which are a gathering



Drechslera | Bipolaris | Exserohilum Group

Group includes Drechslera, Bipolaris, Exserohilum and the rare Helminthosporium. It is often found in soil, plant debris, and as a plant pathogen on grass



Emericella

Allergenicity, health effects, and toxicity are similar to that of Aspergillus. Allergen Type I and Type III also considered to be pathogenic and toxigenic.



Emericellopsis

Emericellopsis species are the sexual states of Acremonium species. Emericellopsis is most closely related to Eurotium and Emericella,



Engydontium

Allergenicity has not been studied. No information is available regarding toxicity. Health effects have been known to include keratitis, brain abscess,



Epicoccum

Common type I allergen, no reported cases of pathogenic characteristics, and produces toxigenic antibiotic substances including flavipin,



Erysiphe

Erysiphe species are plant pathogens, one of the genera causing powdery mildews. Erysiphe is very common and is an obligate parasite on leaves, stems, flowers



Eurotium

Health effects, allergenicity, and toxicity of Eurotium are closely related to the Aspergillus anamorph and, for the most part, have not been studied apart from



Exophiala

Health effects include occasional mycetomas, chromoblastomycosis, and other subcutaneous lesions. No information is available regarding toxicity. Allergenicity has not been studied.



Exserohilum

Exserohilum species are common, and are most closely related to Drechslera and Bipolaris. Our laboratory does not separate Bipolaris, Drechslera, and Exserohilum species.



Fusariella

Fusariella species comprise a very small proportion of the fungal biota. No information is available regarding health effects or toxicity. Allergenicity has not



Fusarium

It is often found in soil or as a plant pathogen as a saprophyte or parasite with a pink



Ganoderma

It is often found growing on conifers and hardwoods causing white rot, root rot, and stem rot. Used in traditional Chinese medicine as an herbal supplement.



Geomyces

Health effects include rare cases of onychomycosis. No information is available regarding toxicity. Allergenicity has not been studied.



Geotrichum

Health effects include reports of endocarditis, encephalitis, and osteomyelitis in immunosuppressed hosts. Pulmonary infections have also been described.



Gliocladium

Gliocladium species are common and are most closely related to Penicillium and Paecilomyces. No cases of infection have been reported in humans or animals.



Gliomastix

Mitosporic fungus. Hyphomycetes.Gliomastix species comprise a small proportion of the fungal biota. This genus is most closely related to Acremonium



Gonatobotrys

Gonatobotrys species comprise a very small proportion of the fungal biota. Morphologically this genus is very close to Gonatobotryum but without dark pigment.



Gonatobotryum

Gonatobotryum species are common in certain ecological niches. They are parasitic on Ceratocystis, and so are found where Ceratocystis is found, most particularly lumber.



Graphium

Graphium species are common, and are closely related to several ascomycetes. The sporulating structures of Graphium form synnema (coremia), which are a gathering of conidiophores into a sort of flower bouquet



Helminthosporium

No cases of infection caused by a true Helminthosporium have been reported in humans or animals. No information is available regarding toxicity.



Hyalodendron

Hyalodendron species appear to be common during certain periods of the year. They are morphologically related to Cladosporium but do not have the olive pigments.



Hyphal Fragments

These are organisms that have not sporulated under the culture conditions provided. Most never sporulate in culture . Some represent non-sporulating colonies.



Lasiodiplodia Theobroma

Reports of health effects include keratitis, onychomycosis, corneal ulcer, and phaeohyphomycosis (one report of each since 1975). No information on toxicity.



Leptosphaeria

Leptosphaeria species are common, and are closely related to other ascomycetes such as Venturia and Pleospora. Grows saprophytically; also as a plant pathogen.



Memnoniella

Allergenicity has not been studied. No information is available regarding pathogenic effects. It is a toxigenic agent.



Microascus

Microascus species are common but comprise a small proportion of the fungal biota. This genus is most closely related to other perithecial forming ascomycetes such as Melanospora.



Microstroma

Microstroma species comprise a very small proportion of the fungal biota. No information is available regarding health effects or toxicity. Allergenicity has not been studied.



Monilia

No information is available regarding health effects, or toxicity. Allergenicity has not been studied. A single case of human infection was reported in 1961.



Mortierella

Mortierella species are soil organisms, common, and are related to other zygomycetes such as Mucor. There are no reports of any health effects in humans,



Mucor

For indoor growth this fungus is commonly found on leftover food, soft fruits, and juices. As an allergen, it has been known to cause type I symptoms



Myrothecium

It is often found on grasses, plants, soil, and decaying fruiting bodies of russula mushrooms with a gray-green coloration. I



Myxomycetes

It is often found in decaying logs, stumps, and dead leaves particularly in forested regions. It is disseminated as a dry spore by the wind.



Myxotrichum

Heath effects are very rare with only one report of onychomycosis in 1976. No information is available regarding toxicity. Allergenicity has not been studied.



Nigrospora

It is often found in decaying plant material and soil with a white coloration with a wooly tuft or long, soft, hairy texture, that over time turns to a black spore cluster.



Nodulisporium

Nodulisporium species comprise a small proportion of the fungal biota. This genus is most closely related to Geniculosporium, Hansfordia, and Calcarisporium.



Ochroconis

Ochroconis species comprise a very small proportion of the fungal biota. This genus is most closely related to Dactylaria and Scolecobasidium.



Oedocephalum

Oedocephalum species comprise a small proportion of the fungal biota. This genus is related to Gonatobotrys and possibly to Amblyosporium.



Oidiodendron

Oidiodendron species are common but comprise a small proportion of the fungal biota. This genus is most closely related to Geomyces and Arthrographis.



Oidium

Oidium is the asexual state of Erysiphe. Erysiphe species are plant pathogens, one of the genera causing powdery mildews.



Ophiostoma Keratocystic

As an allergen it has not been studied. Persons most likely to be affected would be lumberyard workers or carpenters. As a pathogen it has not been reported to infect humans or animals.



Paecilomyces

It is often found in soil, decaying plant material, composting processes, legumes, cottonseed, and some species of parasitic insects. It generally has an ocher or lilac



Penicillium | Aspergillus Types

Type I and Type III allergen. One species considered pathogenic. Produces toxins.



Periconia

It is often found in soil, blackened and dead herbaceous stems and leaf spots, grasses, rushes, and sedges. It is disseminated as a dry spore by the wind.



Petriella

It is often found in plant debris, seeds, dung, and soil with a yellow or reddish brown coloration. It is not known to be allergenic, pathogenic, or toxic.



Phoma

It is often found in plant material, soil, and as a fruit parasite in nature. Indoors, it is often found on walls, ceiling tiles, and on the reverse side of linoleum.



Pithomyces

It is often found in dead leaves of more than 50 different plants, especially leaf fodders as well as in soil and grasses with a tan to brown coloration.



Polythrincium

Polythrincium species comprise a very small proportion of the fungal biota. This genus is somewhat related to Ramularia. No information is available for health



Poria Incrassata

Poria incrassata is one of the basidiomycetes which cause brown rot of wood (dry rot). This fungus is most closely related to Serpula lacrimans



Pycnidial Formers

Pycnidia are sac-like fruiting bodies (asexual) formed by the many of the Coelomycetes. Spores are commonly formed in sticky masses which ooze



Pyrenochaeta

Pyrenochaeta species comprise a small proportion of the fungal biota and is closely related to Phoma.



Rhinocladiella

It is often found in soil, herbaceous substrates, and decaying wood. It is disseminated as a dry spore by the wind. As an allergen, it has not been studied.



Rhizopus

It is often found in the forest and cultivated soils, in decaying fruits and vegetables, or animal dung and compost.



Rusts

It is often found in grasses, flowers, trees, and other living plant materials. It is disseminated as a dry spore by the wind while other species have an active spore release mechanism



Scedosporium

Scedosporium species comprise a small proportion of the fungal biota. This genus is distantly related to Sporothrix, Exophiala, and Scopulariopsis.



Schizophyllum Commune

Schizophyllum commune is a macrofungus, commonly called the “Split-Gill.” It has been found growing on a variety of domestic materials, including plaster.



Scolecobasidium

Scolecobasidium species comprise a very small proportion of the fungal biota. This genus is distantly related to Ochroconis and Dactylaria.



Scopulariopsis

Scopulariopsis is a large genus comprising mainly soil species. Species are frequently isolated from food and building materials such as drywall paper and wood.



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